Buya Hamka dan Tasawuf Modern

Hamka sosok multitalenta, banyak bidang kehidupan dirambahnya. Pemikiran HAMKA yang kompleks menjadi tidak lengkap kurang lengkap tanpa mengulik dimensi mistik Islam yang dilakuinya, lebih lanjut kita mengenalnya sebagai tasawuf. Meskipun  setuju tasawuf yang tidak murni dapat merusak Islam dan perikehidupan Muslim, beliau menentang serangan terhadap pemikiran, doktrin, dan pengikut tasawuf. Hamka menyaksikan bagaimana penentangan keras dan tegas pada tasawuf. Rentang perlawanan atas tasawuf bergradasi, dari sikap mengkafirkan, menyebutnya sesat, pengikut muktazilah, dan zindiq.  Serangan hebat atas tasawuf, kata dia, adalah hal sia-sia.

Mengapa sia-sia? Penentang tasawuf sebagai hal yang sia-sia diungkapkan HAMKA dalam bukunya: Ayahku. Beliau mengkritik sikap keras itu justru selayaknya menjadikan mereka (para pengikut tasawuf), sebagai pihak yang sebetulnya merupakan target program reformisme, hal yang memicu upaya bertahan atas berbagai serangan terhadap mereka. Alih-alih berdiri di sisi gerakan antitasawuf, HAMKA mendamaikan pihak-pihak yang bertikai itu. Beliau mengantarai para pendukung tasawuf dan antitasawuf. Hal itu didasari niat mengembalikan dan memurnikan tasawuf. Ikhtiar ke sana, ditempuh dengan cara menelisik akar pemahaman dan manifestasi mistik Islam dengan perspektif sejarah dan melalui langkah-langkah dialogis.

Pengembalian dan pemurnian tasawuf ada beberapa tahapan. Pertama, menjernihkan asal-usul tasawuf, menekankan peran historisnya sebagai aspek fundamental dalam Islam. HAMKA menelusuri asal-usul dan siginifikansi tasawuf hingga ke zaman Rasulullah. Bahwa tasawuf sudah ada sejak zaman Rasulullah, bukan ditemukan oleh generasi berikutnya. Tasawuf dimulai oleh Rasulullah sendiri, dan harusnya dianggap sebagai bagian dari Sunnah. Sehubungan dengan penelusuran sejarah itu, ia menggambarkan dengan jelas mana yang merupakan tasawuf murni dan mana yang bukan. Ia menguraikan tujuan-tujuan sejati dari tasawuf dan menjelaskan—menggunakan skema filosofis dan kultural yang mutakhir— keberadaan elemen-elemen tak islami atau “asing” yang telah diterima sebagai tradisi.

Kedua, pada saat yang sama, Hamka juga mencatat sumbangan positif tasawuf. Ia menunjukkan beraneka prestasi para sufi dalam penyebaran Islam ke berbagai penjuru dunia dan berbagai peran ganda yang mereka mainkan dalam masyarakat Islam. Ketiga, upayanya dalam pengembalian dan pemurnian tasawuf demi mendorong sufi menelusuri kembali dinamisme historis (reinterpretasi sejumlah konsep kunci dalam kosmologi sufi dan membersihkan tasawuf dari takhayul dan irasionalitas).

Hamka mendesak para sufi, dan sebagai implikasinya juga, masyarakat Muslim di dunia Melayu untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan tuntutan zaman modern, serta menegur para pegiat tasawuf dan pendukung mereka untuk fokus dan menekankan pada aspek-aspek positif spiritualitas dalam kehidupan Muslim. Berikut adalah yang ditekankan Hamka dalam Pandangan Hidup Muslim,

… Adapun tasawuf yang suci murni bukanlah lari dari gelombang hidup. Tasawuf yang sejati adalah panduan dalam menempuh hidup. Tasawuf yang sejati bukanlah lari ke hutan, melainkan lebur ke dalam masyarakat sebab masyarakat perlu akan bimbingan tasawuf yang sejati….

Posisi intelektual Hamka yang tidak netral dan tetap menjaga keseimbangan di tengah-tengah berbagai pandangan dan kecenderungan yang saling berlawanan, sehingga ia pun dijuluki sebagai “pionir neotasawuf di Indonesia”, “guru mistik”, “sufi tanpa tarekat”, “sufi Salafi”, “sufi sederhana”, “sufi berakal”. Selain itu, ia juga dianggap berperan besar dalam “proses rehabilitasi laku mistik di Islam Indonesia”. (Karel Steenbrink, 1982; Nurcholish Madjid, 1998; Azyumardi Azra, 1999; Peter Riddell, 2001; dan Julia D Howell, 2010). Penjelasan di atas menegaskan jasa Hamka dalam mempopulerkan gagasan tasawuf modern. Sayangnya, kajian-kajian terdahulu mengenai Hamka dan tasawuf relatif hanya meliput pengaruh pandangan Hamka terhadap tasawuf terbatas pada konteks Indonesia. Tidak meliput pengaruh pandangannya di Dunia Melayu modern, termasuk Singapura, Malaysia, Brunei, Thailand Selatan, dan Filipina Selatan.

Padahal, jika mencermati karya-karya Hamka dari dekat, ia tidak hanya memikirkan kesejahteraan masyarakat Indonesia atau tasawuf di Indonesia, melainkan juga berusaha mengembalikan dan memurnikan tasawuf kepada tasawuf yang dulu pernah jamak dipraktikkan oleh masyarakat Melayu—yang notabene merupakan kelompok masyarakat Muslim terbesar di dunia. Contohnya, dalam bukunya Sejarah Umat Islam,  yang tebalnya mencapai 900 halaman itu, Hamka memintakan dialog antara ulama Muslim lokal di dunia Melayu tentang ilmu tasawuf, dan menunjukkan bahwa umat perlu menganalisis tasawuf dari perspektif koneksi dan interaksi dalam kawasan dan Dunia Muslim secara umum.

Pionir Tasawuf Positif

Akhirnya, satu hal yang penting pula untuk dicermati, Hamka berjuang mendobrak batas-batas ideologis antara Muslim reformis-modernis, di satu sisi, dan sufi di sisi lain. Ia berhasil melakukannya melalui beberapa cara. Pertama, dalam memahami tasawuf, ia memiliki pandangan yang berbeda dari ulama Muslim lainnya. Kedua, ia mengikhtisarkan parameter tasawuf dengan cara merombak konsepsi yang dipahami oleh pihak antitasawuf dan pendukung tasawuf, lalu menegaskan kembali tempat tasawuf dalam masyarakat modern. Namun, yang terpenting adalah Hamka berhasil menunjukkan bahwa tasawuf pernah dan masih dapat berperan sebagai kekuatan konstruktif dalam proses penciptaan masyarakat Muslim di dunia Melayu

Dalam mengembangkan pemikirannya tentang tasawuf, Hamka berdiri di antara pemikiran sufi dan antisufi yang tengah bergaung di zamannya. Selain itu, ia juga menakar ulang dua pandangan tersebut dan mengartikulasikan pandangannya sendiri tentang apa itu tasawuf dan seperti apa harusnya tasawuf itu. Atas dasar itulah pemikiran-pemikiran HAMKA tentang tasawuf perlu dikaji dan dapat diperbandingkan dengan gagasan para pemikir Muslim di seluruh penjuru dunia yang berusaha menutup jurang ideologis antara tasawuf dan antitasawuf. Dalam pemikiran masyarakat intelektual Islam, Hamka dipandang pelopor tasawuf positif.

Penyebutan tasawuf positif dimaknai  tasawuf modern atau berdasarkan tauhid. Jalan tasawufnya melalui sikap zuhud yang dilaksanakan dalam ibadah resmi, zuhud tanpa menjauhi kehidupan normal.

162 thoughts on “Buya Hamka dan Tasawuf Modern

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