Tjokroaminoto Sang Guru Bangsa

Hadji Oemar Said (H.O.S) Tjokroaminoto

“Saya pernah meneguk air yang diberikan oleh Haji Agus Salim sambil duduk nglesot di bawah kakinya. Saya merasa berbahagia bahwa saya ini dulu dapat minum air pemberian Tjokroaminoto, dan minum air pemberian Agus Salim.”

Kata-kata di atas merupakan pengakuan tulus dari Soekarno atas ketokohan Tjokroaminoto dan Haji Agus Salim, dua tokoh sentral dalam kepemimpinan Sarekat Islam, dan keduanya sering disebut sebagai   guru kaum pergerakan.

Bung Karno sendiri merupakan murid kesayangan Tjokroaminoto, yang kemudian dinikahkan dengan salah satu putrinya yaitu Utari. Tokoh pergerakan nasional lainnya yang pernah berguru kepada Tjokroaminoto  antara lain   Semaun, Alimin, Muso, Kartosuwiryo, bahkan Tan Malaka. Kepada murid-muridnya  Tjokro selalu berpesan:  “Jika kalian ingin menjadi pemimpin besar, menulislah seperti wartawan,  dan bicaralah seperti orator.”

 Pesan ini rupanya sangat mendalam bagi  murid-muridnya hingga membuat Soekarno setiap malam belajar pidato sampai berteriak dan  membuat kawan-kawannya yaitu Muso, Alimin, Kartosuwiryo, Darsono, dan yang lainnya terbangun dan tertawa menyaksikannya. Tjokroaminoto sendiri, yang dikenal dengan kata-kata mutiaranya “Setinggi-tinggi ilmu, semurni-murni tauhid, sepintar-pintar siasat”, merupakan orator yang ulung.

Tjokroaminoto diahirkan di Madiun, JawaTimur, pada 18 Agustus 1882. Ia berasl dari keluarga priyayi yang taat beragam. Setelah tamat dari sekolah administrasi di Magelang, ia menjadi juru tulis pada patih Ngawi (Jawa Timur)  selama tiga tahun. Ia kemudian menjadi patih. Pekerjaan ini kemudian ia tinggalkan, menyusul kepindahannya ke Surabaya, untuk bekerja di sebuah perusahaan Belanda. Di kota ini pula, pada malam hari  mengikuti kursus  permesinan selama  tiga tahun. Setelah itu ia bekerja sebagai pegawai sebuah pabrik gula di luar Kota Surabaya  dari tahun 1911-1912.

Sewaktu utusan  Sarekat Dagang Islam dari Solo datang menemuinya untuk  bergabung dengan organisasi yang didirikan oleh Haji Samanhudi, Tjokro sudah  terkenal dengan sikap-sikapnya yang radikal dengan menentang kebiasaan-kebiasaan yang memalukan bagi rakyat banyak. Ia juga masyhur  sebagai seorang yang menganggap dirinya sederajat dengan pihak mana pun, apakah orang itu Belanda atau pejabat pemerintah. Lebih dari itu, ia sangat ingin sikap semacam itu juga  dimiliki oleh orang-orang sebangsanya. Terutama dalam berhubungan denan orang-orang asing. Atas sikapnya itu, tidak heran jika Tjokroaminoto punya keberanian untuk duduk di kursi ketika  menemui seorang Belanda atau seorang pejabat pemerintah. Ketika berbicara  kepada atasannya, Tjokro  tanpa menundukkan muka ke bawah. Ia duduk di kursi dengan meletakkan kakinya di atas kakinya yang lain. Untuk ukuran zaman now itu adalah sepele. Tetapi semua hal-hal kecil itu di zaman kolonial  pantang dilakukan. Atas sikapnya yang gagah dan jauh dari rasa minder itu, Tjokroaminoto disebut sebagai Gatot koco Sarekat Islam.      

Di bawah kepemimpinan dwitunggal, Tjokroaminoto dan Haji Agus Salim,  SI tampil sebagai pemimpin pergerakan kemerdekaan. Tidak diragukan lagi, mereka merupakan  pengobar semangat nasonalisme. Waktu itu nasionalisme identik dengan Islam, dan belum muncul pandangan yang mempertentangkan faham kebangsaan (nasionalisme) dengan Islam. Ketika  Sukarno, murid Tjokroaminoto tadi, dan sejumlah tokoh pergerakan lain mulai mempropagandakan nasionalisme yang seakan berlawanan dengan Islam, barulah kedua tokoh itu menjelaskan  pandangan Islam dengan nasionalisme. Bahkan Tjokroaminoto menyatakan  bahwa “Islam sepertujuh bahagian rambut pun tak menghalang dan merintangi kejadian dan kemajuan nasionalisme yang sejati, tetapi memajukan dia.  Nasionalisme yang dimajukan oleh Islam bukanlah ‘eng’ nasionalisme (yang sempit) dan berbahaya, tetapi….. yang menuntun kepada sosialisme berdasar Islam, yakni sosialisme yang menghendaki mono-humanisme (persatuan manusia) dikuasai oleh Satu Yang Maha Kuasa, Allah SWT, dengan lantaran (melalui) hukum-hukum yang sudah dipermaklumkan kepada utusan-Nya Nabi Penutup, Muhammad s.a.w..”

Sumber: Deliar Noer, Gerakan Moderen Islam di Indonesia 1900-1942 (1996).

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