Burung Hantu dan Raja

Suryana Sudrajat

Kehancuran akibat kezaliman bersifat pasti,  dan tidak akan dapat dilakukan. Tapi mengapa banyak negara tidak runtuh  meski sering melanggar keadilan?

Abu Hasan Ali ibn Husain al-Mas’udi (wafat 957 M.) dikenal sebagai sejarawan pengembara dan ahli geografi. Penjelajahan pria keturunan Abdullah ibn Mas’ud (salah seorang sahabat Nabi yang “spesialis Al-Qur’an) ini pernah membawanya sampai ke india. Di sana, untuk pertama kalinya dia melihat gajah (80 ekor!) dalam satu kandang milik seorang gubernur. Tapi selain pengalaman kelananya yang unik, yang ia tuliskan dalam kitab Murajudz Dzuhah wa Ma’adinul Jawahir (Padang Rumput Emas dan Tambang Batu Mulia), Al-Mas’udi punya pengetahuan mendalam mengenai muncul dan jatuhnya dinasti-dinasti. Berikut sebuah matsal (parabel), yang didengar  oleh Mas’udi dari orang Persia.

Syahdan Mobedzan, pemuka agama di sana, mengeritik Raja Bahram bin Bahram (tidak disebutkan  Bahram yang ke berapa), lewat cerita tentang seekor burung hantu yang terus-menerus menangis.

“Coba, Paduka dengar sendiri ’kan, rintihannya?”

“Ya, saya mendengarnya. Tapi kenapa, Mobedzan?”

“Burung itu ingin kawin, Raja. Tapi calon betinanya menyaratkan dia memberikan 20 desa yang hancur di masa pemerintahan Paduka.”

“Mmm…. lalu?”

“Burung jantan menerima syarat itu,” kata Mobedzan. “Malahan berkata ‘Jika Raja masih terus berkuasa, saya akan memberikan 100 desa hancur. Itu sudah dipenuhi’.”

Raja Bahram terusik. Toh ia masih menanyakan maksud cerita itu.

“Yang Mulia,” jawab si kepala agama, “Kekuatan kedaulatan hanya terpenuhi melalui aturan agama. Tunduk kepada Tuhan, dan bertindak di bawah perintah dan larangannya. Agama hanya akan tegak melalui kedaulatan. Dan kedaulatan tidak akan kuat kecuali melalui orang-orang yang kuat. Manusia baru tegak dengan dukungan harta. Harta tidak bisa diperoleh kecuali lewat pengelolaan. Dan pengelolaan baru berkembang bila keadilan tegak. Keadilan adalah timbangan menegakkannya, raja mengawasinya. “

Si kepala agama itu mulai lebih fokus, “Anda sendiri, Yang Mulia, setelah pergi ke ladang-ladang, lalu merampasnya dari para pemilik dan pengelolanya. Mereka itu rakyat yang membayar pajak tanah. Anda berikan ladang mereka kepada para pengawal, pelayan, para pemalas. Mereka tidak mengelolanya, juga tidak peduli akibat sikap itu. Mereka tidak melihat kebaikan dari ladang. Mereka diperbolehkan menerima hasil pungutan pajak (dan tidak dikenai pungutan pajak tanah) karena dekat dengan Raja. Terjadilah beban yang tidak adil atas pembayar pajak dan pengusaha ladang dan mengosongkan rumah, mencari tempat perlindungan di tanah-tanah yang jauh dan sukar dicapai. Pengusahaan pun menurun, ladang-ladang rusak. Di sana cuma ada sedkit uang, dan tentara. Rakyat mati. Raja-raja tetangga mendambakan Kerajaan Persia, karena mereka tahu fondasi Kerajaan sudah rapuh.”

Begitulah. Beruntung Raja Bahram punya dua telinga. Coba, kalau hanya satu, ia tidak akan mulai mempedulikan masalah Kerajaan. Ladang-ladang ditarik dari para pembantu dekatnya, dan dikembalikan kepada para pemilik semula, yang lalu mengurusnya kembali. Orang lemah pelan-pelan kembali bangkit. Tanah ditanami. Dan tanda-tanda kemakmuran mulai tampak. Tentara kuat, dan agresi dari luar bisa dilumpuhkan.

Pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita itu, kata Sejarawan Ibn Khaldun (1322-1406) yang mengutip kisah Mas’udi itu dalam bukunya Muqaddimah, ialah bahwa kezaliman bisa meruntuhkan peradaban — karena orang menjadi apatis— dan pada gilirannya menghancurkan negara. Tapi sehubungan dengan itu, kata Ibn Khaldun, jangan Anda menerima fakta banyaknya negara yang sering melanggar keadilan dan tidak juga runtuh sebagai bukti kebenaran. Jika negara itu besar dan makmur, kezaliman memang hanya akan menimbulkan kerusakan yang tidak seberapa, sebab kerusakan itu tibanya berangsur-angsur. Kerusakan akan ditutupi oleh kegiatan ekonomi secara keseluruhan, dan hanya akan tampak setelah beberapa waktu. Lagi pula, kata dia, pemerintah penindas itu biasanya akan pergi sebelum pergi. Fakta ini menunjukkan, kata bapak sosiologi ini, bahwa kehancuran akibat kezaliman bersifat pasti, dan tidak akan dapat dielakan.

Hancurnya peradaban itu, kata Ibn Khaldun, merupakan hikmah yang berada dalam maksud Allah serta penegak syariat (Muhammad s.a.w) yang mengharamkan kezaliman. Kezaliman terjadi karena negara — dan raja, serta aparatnya — butuh banyak uang lantaran terbiasa hidup mewah. Belanja mereka besar, dan pemasukan yang biasa tidak sanggup mengonkosinya. Karena itu, sang raja menciptakan gelar-gelar baru, di satu sisi, dan macam-macam pungutan di sisi lain. Tetapi kemewahan terus meningkat, dan pengeluaran semakin boros. Keinginan merampas harta orang lain, dan kesempatan mereka, menjadi semakin kuat. Dengan demikian,legitimasi kekuasaan negara merosot. Wibawanya lenyap. Dan akhirnya digulingkan.

Kita memang tidak sezaman dengan Ibn Khaldun, teoretikus luar biasa yang hidup 600 tahun lalu itu. Bentuk-bentuk kezaliman sendiri bisa sama dan bisa berbeda, tergantung zaman. Tapi kita punya keprihatinan serupa dengan filsof sejarah itu.  

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