Mengenal Era Inovasi Disruptif

Dayacipta Sudrajat

Satu dasawarsa yang lalu  jika perlu ojek, Anda harus terlebih dahulu jalan dari rumah menuju pangkalan ojek di ujung jalan atau gang. Tarifnya tidak menentu, kadang-kadang terserah tukang ojeknya. Tapi kini, Anda tinggal klik lokasi penjemputan dan tempat tujuan, ojek akan datang langsung di depan rumah  dengan tarif pasti yang diukur berdasarkan jarak.

Begitupun jika kepingin beli pakaian atau butuh bahan-bahan pokok, hingga darurat butuh obat,  saat ini semua tinggal klik saja melalui aplikasi di smartphone Anda. Semua yang dibutuhkan akan sampai ke tempat Anda. Praktis, hemat tenaga dan ongkos transportasi.

Namun di sisi lain, tukang ojek ataupun taksi konvensional jumlah pelanggannya menurun. Retail-retail besar, seperti department store maupun supermarket omsetnya jauh menurun—beberapa bahkan gulung tikar. Konon, inovasi-inovasi yang ‘mengganggu’ jalannya inovasi bisnis yang sudah ada, dinamakan inovasi disruptif.

Sering Disalahpahami

Merujuk artikel “What Is Disruptive Innovation” pada Harvard Business Review (2015), teori inovasi disruptif diperkenalkan oleh Clayton M. Christensen pada 1995. Inovasi disruptif sederhananya adalah bagaimana start-up atau perusahaan yang baru saja dirintis, dengan sumber daya yang terbatas berhasil ‘mengganggu’ bisnis yang sudah mapan. Para inisiator start-up ini sebetulnya hanya bermain di segmen konsumen yang sangat spesifik, sementara perusahaan yang sudah mapan berfokus pada pengembangan produk dan pelayanan konsumen.

Namun demikian, tidak semua inovasi baru bisa disebut inovasi disruptif. Christensen dkk, dalam artikel itu  menyebutkan beberapa syarat sebuah inovasi baru bisa disebut inovasi disruptif. Pertama, inovasi disruptif menciptakan konsumen yang belum pernah ada sebelumnya. Christensen dkk mencontohkan perusahaan Xerox sebagai ‘inkumben’ dalam inovasi teknologi mesin fotokopi, menargetkan pemasaran produknya pada perusahaan besar dengan harga yang tinggi—sesuai dengan kualitas produk yang dibutuhkan konsumen.

Sementara itu, konsumen dalam lingkup yang lebih kecil seperti sekolah, perpustakaan, maupun kantor-kantor kecil masih menggunakan karbon secara manual untuk membuat kopian dokumen. Pada tahun 1970an teknologi personal copiers mulai dikenal dan menyasar ke lingkup konsumen yang lebih kecil tersebut, sebagai solusi yang lebih terjangkau. Dengan menciptakan pasar baru, personal copiers mendisrupsi pasar mainstream yang sebelumnya dikuasai Xerox.

Kedua, inovasi disruptif tidak akan merebut konsumen di pasar yang sudah ada hanya dengan mengandalkan harga yang lebih murah. Pada umumnya, konsumen tidak akan beralih jika kualitas produk tidak lebih baik meski harga yang ditawarkan lebih murah. Oleh karena itu, produk barang dan jasa yang dapat ‘mendisrupsi’ adalah produk yang menawarkan efisiensi dengan harga yang lebih murah dari produk yang sudah ada di pasar mainstream.

Ketiga, sebuah inovasi hanya bisa mendisrupsi produk barang dan jasa dari industri yang sama. Misalnya, layanan perjalanan online seperti Traveloka, Booking.com ataupun Tiket.com hanya bisa mendisrupsi agen-agen perjalanan konvensional.

Dewasa ini, inovasi disruptif kerapkali disalahpahami sebagai inovasi di bidang teknologi dan komunikasi saja (ICT),  padahal cakupan inovasi disruptif bisa lebih luas lagi. Di bidang transportasi, kesehatan dan pelayanan publik, misalnya. Sebagai contoh, inovasi penggunaan uang elektronik untuk membayar tol adalah sebuah disruptif. Tidak lagi membutuhkan manusia untuk bertransaksi karcis tol, cukup tap pada mesin di gerbang tol.

Bagaimana di Indonesia?

Indonesia pun tengah mengalami fenomena disruptif. Gojek, sebagai perusahaan pertama penyedia transportasi online di Indonesia, adalah contoh yang paling signifikan. Bermula dari sebuah start-up pada tahun 2011, inovasi ojek dan taksi online yang dikembangkan Gojek mendisrupsi ‘pasar’ ojek dan taksi konvensional.

Mudah kita temui sehari-hari di stasiun-stasiun KRL di Jakarta misalnya, orang-orang lebih suka melanjutkan perjalanan dengan transportasi online ketimbang dengan ojek pangkalan. Alasannya, selain tarif yang dipatok adalah fixed cost berdasarkan jarak yang ditempuh, transportasi online memberikan tarif yang jauh lebih murah dari versi konvensional. Belum lagi promo yang ditawarkan apabila kita terus menerus menggunakan aplikasi transportasi online tersebut.

Lalu, mengapa transportasi online yang beroperasi di beberapa kota di Indonesia seperti Gojek, Grab dan Uber (yang baru-baru ini memerger bisnisnya dengan Grab untuk wilayah Asia Tenggara) bisa mematok tarif yang jauh lebih murah ketimbang jasa transportasi konvensional?

Ada beberapa alasan. Pertama, penumpang tidak dibebankan biaya tidak langsung seperti biaya bengkel, biaya perawatan, atau pool taksi. Kedua, perusahaan transportasi online juga mengandalkan pemasukan dari banyak sumber seperti investor maupun sponsor. Gojek berhasil menciptakan pasar baru, dengan mengubah kebiasaan konsumen dalam memilih moda transportasi. Selain itu, menurut Menkominfo Rudiantara, Gojek mampu mengembangkan model bisnis disruptif yang mampu memberikan peluang bisnis dan lapangan kerja (Warta Ekonomi, 2017).

Contoh inovasi disruptif lain yang berhasil diciptakan di Indonesia adalah Tokopedia. Tokopedia yang didirikan pada tahun 2009 adalah e-commerce pertama di Indonesia. Tokopedia berperan dalam menumbuhkan tren e-commerce di Indonesia. Hingga saat ini, Indonesia sendiri mempunyai peranan yang signifikan dalam penguasaan pasar e-commerce di Asia Tenggara, dengan angka 52%.

Tokopedia sebagai marketplace menyediakan ‘lapak’ untuk membuka usaha secara online. Pembeli pun dapat dengan mudah mencari produk yang dibutuhkan, sesuai dengan kategori yang tersedia di Tokopedia. Hingga saat ini Tokopedia telah menyediakan lebih dari 2 juta ‘lapak’ yang tersebar di lebih dari 5.600 kecamatan di Indonesia. 80% dari pelapak yang ada di Tokopedia adalah UMKM baru.

Keberadaan Tokopedia (dan e-commerce lain yang berkembang kemudian), berhasil mendisrupsi keberadaan ritel-ritel konvensional. Beberapa ritel yang sudah besar di pasaran seperti Matahari, malah mengembangkan pasar onlinenya dengan nama Matahari.com.

Tantangan Kebijakan

Namun, di tengah-tengah laju positif inovasi disruptif, pihak-pihak yang bergerak di sektor konvensional menjadi yang paling terdampak. Apalagi, di sektor transportasi online. Bukan berita baru, di banyak daerah banyak terjadi kesalahpahaman antara driver ojek online dengan ojek pangkalan maupun angkot. Biasanya, terdapat kesepakatan bahwa transportasi online tidak boleh mengambil penumpang di dekat pangkalan ojek atau angkot.

Di beberapa bandara di Indonesia, bahkan terdapat kebijakan bahwa taksi online dilarang untuk mengambil penumpang di bandara. Sehingga konsumen hanya mempunyai opsi taksi konvensional sebagai transportasi umum. Kementerian Perhubungan sendiri telah mengeluarkan peraturan yang  mengatur transportasi online, termasuk di antaranya kebijakan tarif batas atas dan batas bawah.

Bagaimana tantangan inovasi disruptif dapat memberikan manfaat bagi semua orang? Sebagai individu, yang bergerak dalam sektor apa pun, kita harus mampu untuk terus beradaptasi dan melakukan inovasi. Sementara itu, pemerintah pun perlu untuk membuat kebijakan untuk mengangkat pelaku-pelaku sektor industri konvensional yang terdampak oleh kemunculan inovasi disruptif.[]

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